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Thursday, November 19, 2009


?A community nurse is serving as a patient’s advocate if she tells a malnourished patient to go to a meal program at a local park.

 If a patient isn’t following his treatment plan, the nurse should first ask why.

 Falls are the leading cause of injury in elderly people.

 Primary prevention is true prevention. Examples are immunizations, weight control, and smoking cessation.

 Secondary prevention is early detection. Examples include purified protein derivative (PPD), breast self-examination, testicular self-examination, and chest X-ray.

 Tertiary prevention is treatment to prevent long-term complications.

 A patient indicates that he’s coming to terms with having a chronic disease when he says, “I’m never going to get any better.”

 On noticing religious artifacts and literature on a patient’s night stand, a culturally aware nurse would ask the patient the meaning of the items.

 A Mexican patient may request the intervention of a curandero, or faith healer, who involves the family in healing the patient.

 In an infant, the normal hemoglobin value is 12 g/dl.

 The nitrogen balance estimates the difference between the intake and use of protein.

 Most of the absorption of water occurs in the large intestine.

 Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.

 When assessing a patient’s eating habits, the nurse should ask, “What have you eaten in the last 24 hours?”

 A vegan diet should include an abundant supply of fiber.

 A hypotonic enema softens the feces, distends the colon, and stimulates peristalsis.

 First-morning urine provides the best sample to measure glucose, ketone, pH, and specific gravity values.

 To induce sleep, the first step is to minimize environmental stimuli.

 Before moving a patient, the nurse should assess the patient’s physical abilities and ability to understand instructions as well as the amount of strength required to move the patient.

 To lose 1 lb (0.5 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly intake by 3,500 calories (approximately 500 calories daily). To lose 2 lb (1 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly caloric intake by 7,000 calories (approximately 1,000 calories daily).

 To avoid shearing force injury, a patient who is completely immobile is lifted on a sheet.

 To insert a catheter from the nose through the trachea for suction, the nurse should ask the patient to swallow.

 Vitamin C is needed for collagen production.

 Only the patient can describe his pain accurately.

 Cutaneous stimulation creates the release of endorphins that block the transmission of pain stimuli.

 Patient-controlled analgesia is a safe method to relieve acute pain caused by surgical incision, traumatic injury, labor and delivery, or cancer.

 An Asian American or European American typically places distance between himself and others when communicating.

 The patient who believes in a scientific, or biomedical, approach to health is likely to expect a drug, treatment, or surgery to cure illness.

 Chronic illnesses occur in very young as well as middle-aged and very old people.

 The trajectory framework for chronic illness states that preferences about daily life activities affect treatment decisions.

 Exacerbations of chronic disease usually cause the patient to seek treatment and may lead to hospitalization.

 School health programs provide cost-effective health care for low-income families and those who have no health insurance.

 Collegiality is the promotion of collaboration, development, and interdependence among members of a profession.

 A change agent is an individual who recognizes a need for change or is selected to make a change within an established entity, such as a hospital.

 The patients’ bill of rights was introduced by the American Hospital Association.

 Abandonment is premature termination of treatment without the patient’s permission and without appropriate relief of symptoms.

 Values clarification is a process that individuals use to prioritize their personal values.

 Distributive justice is a principle that promotes equal treatment for all.

 Milk and milk products, poultry, grains, and fish are good sources of phosphate.

 The best way to prevent falls at night in an oriented, but restless, elderly patient is to raise the side rails.

 By the end of the orientation phase, the patient should begin to trust the nurse.

 Falls in the elderly are likely to be caused by poor vision.

 Barriers to communication include language deficits, sensory deficits, cognitive impairments, structural deficits, and paralysis.

 The three elements that are necessary for a fire are heat, oxygen, and combustible material.

 Sebaceous glands lubricate the skin.

 To check for petechiae in a dark-skinned patient, the nurse should assess the oral mucosa.

 To put on a sterile glove, the nurse should pick up the first glove at the folded border and adjust the fingers when both gloves are on.

 To increase patient comfort, the nurse should let the alcohol dry before giving an intramuscular injection.

 Treatment for a stage 1 ulcer on the heels includes heel protectors.

 Seventh-Day Adventists are usually vegetarians.

 Endorphins are morphinelike substances that produce a feeling of well-being.

Pain tolerance is the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure.

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