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Saturday, November 28, 2009


December 2009 TIPS

Saturday, November 21, 2009


?Ethnocentrism is the universal belief that one’s way of life is superior to others’.

 When a nurse is communicating with a patient through an interpreter, the nurse should speak to the patient and the interpreter.

 In accordance with the “hot-cold” system used by some Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanic and Latino groups, most foods, beverages, herbs, and drugs are described as “cold.”

 Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals of a particular group.

 Discrimination is preferential treatment of individuals of a particular group. It’s usually discussed in a negative sense.

 Increased gastric motility interferes with the absorption of oral drugs.

 The three phases of the therapeutic relationship are orientation, working, and termination.

 Patients often exhibit resistive and challenging behaviors in the orientation phase of the therapeutic relationship.

 Abdominal assessment is performed in the following order: inspection, auscultation, palpation, and percussion.

 When measuring blood pressure in a neonate, the nurse should select a cuff that’s no less than one-half and no more than two-thirds the length of the extremity that’s used.

 When administering a drug by Z-track, the nurse shouldn’t use the same needle that was used to draw the drug into the syringe because doing so could stain the skin.

 Sites for intradermal injection include the inner arm, the upper chest, and on the back, under the scapula.

 When evaluating whether an answer on an examination is correct, the nurse should consider whether the action that’s described promotes autonomy (independence), safety, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging.

 When answering a question on the NCLEX examination, the student should consider the cue (the stimulus for a thought) and the inference (the thought) to determine whether the inference is correct. When in doubt, the nurse should select an answer that indicates the need for further information to eliminate ambiguity. For example, the patient complains of chest pain (the stimulus for the thought) and the nurse infers that the patient is having cardiac pain (the thought). In this case, the nurse hasn’t confirmed whether the pain is cardiac. It would be more appropriate to make further assessments.

 Veracity is truth and is an essential component of a therapeutic relationship between a health care provider and his patient.

 Beneficence is the duty to do no harm and the duty to do good. There’s an obligation in patient care to do no harm and an equal obligation to assist the patient.

 Nonmaleficence is the duty to do no harm.

 Frye’s ABCDE cascade provides a framework for prioritizing care by identifying the most important treatment concerns.

 A = Airway. This category includes everything that affects a patent airway, including a foreign object, fluid from an upper respiratory infection, and edema from trauma or an allergic reaction.

 B = Breathing. This category includes everything that affects the breathing pattern, including hyperventilation or hypoventilation and abnormal breathing patterns, such as Korsakoff’s, Biot’s, or Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

 C = Circulation. This category includes everything that affects the circulation, including fluid and electrolyte disturbances and disease processes that affect cardiac output.

 D = Disease processes. If the patient has no problem with the airway, breathing, or circulation, then the nurse should evaluate the disease processes, giving priority to the disease process that poses the greatest immediate risk. For example, if a patient has terminal cancer and hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia is a more immediate concern.

 E = Everything else. This category includes such issues as writing an incident report and completing the patient chart. When evaluating needs, this category is never the highest priority.

 When answering a question on an NCLEX examination, the basic rule is “assess before action.” The student should evaluate each possible answer carefully. Usually, several answers reflect the implementation phase of nursing and one or two reflect the assessment phase. In this case, the best choice is an assessment response unless a specific course of action is clearly indicated.

 Rule utilitarianism is known as the “greatest good for the greatest number of people” theory.

 Egalitarian theory emphasizes that equal access to goods and services must be provided to the less fortunate by an affluent society.

 Active euthanasia is actively helping a person to die.

 Brain death is irreversible cessation of all brain function.

 Passive euthanasia is stopping the therapy that’s sustaining life.

 A third-party payer is an insurance company.

 Utilization review is performed to determine whether the care provided to a patient was appropriate and cost-effective.

 A value cohort is a group of people who experienced an out-of-the-ordinary event that shaped their values.

 Voluntary euthanasia is actively helping a patient to die at the patient’s request.

 Bananas, citrus fruits, and potatoes are good sources of potassium.

 Good sources of magnesium include fish, nuts, and grains.

 Beef, oysters, shrimp, scallops, spinach, beets, and greens are good sources of iron.

 Intrathecal injection is administering a drug through the spine.

 When a patient asks a question or makes a statement that’s emotionally charged, the nurse should respond to the emotion behind the statement or question rather than to what’s being said or asked.

 The steps of the trajectory-nursing model are as follows:

– Step 1: Identifying the trajectory phase

– Step 2: Identifying the problems and establishing goals

– Step 3: Establishing a plan to meet the goals

– Step 4: Identifying factors that facilitate or hinder attainment of the goals

– Step 5: Implementing interventions

– Step 6: Evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions

 A Hindu patient is likely to request a vegetarian diet.

 Pain threshold, or pain sensation, is the initial point at which a patient feels pain.

 The difference between acute pain and chronic pain is its duration.

 Referred pain is pain that’s felt at a site other than its origin.

 Alleviating pain by performing a back massage is consistent with the gate control theory.

 Romberg’s test is a test for balance or gait.

 Pain seems more intense at night because the patient isn’t distracted by daily activities.

 Older patients commonly don’t report pain because of fear of treatment, lifestyle changes, or dependency.

 No pork or pork products are allowed in a Muslim diet.

 Two goals of Healthy People 2010 are:

– Help individuals of all ages to increase the quality of life and the number of years of optimal health

– Eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population.

Thursday, November 19, 2009


?A community nurse is serving as a patient’s advocate if she tells a malnourished patient to go to a meal program at a local park.

 If a patient isn’t following his treatment plan, the nurse should first ask why.

 Falls are the leading cause of injury in elderly people.

 Primary prevention is true prevention. Examples are immunizations, weight control, and smoking cessation.

 Secondary prevention is early detection. Examples include purified protein derivative (PPD), breast self-examination, testicular self-examination, and chest X-ray.

 Tertiary prevention is treatment to prevent long-term complications.

 A patient indicates that he’s coming to terms with having a chronic disease when he says, “I’m never going to get any better.”

 On noticing religious artifacts and literature on a patient’s night stand, a culturally aware nurse would ask the patient the meaning of the items.

 A Mexican patient may request the intervention of a curandero, or faith healer, who involves the family in healing the patient.

 In an infant, the normal hemoglobin value is 12 g/dl.

 The nitrogen balance estimates the difference between the intake and use of protein.

 Most of the absorption of water occurs in the large intestine.

 Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.

 When assessing a patient’s eating habits, the nurse should ask, “What have you eaten in the last 24 hours?”

 A vegan diet should include an abundant supply of fiber.

 A hypotonic enema softens the feces, distends the colon, and stimulates peristalsis.

 First-morning urine provides the best sample to measure glucose, ketone, pH, and specific gravity values.

 To induce sleep, the first step is to minimize environmental stimuli.

 Before moving a patient, the nurse should assess the patient’s physical abilities and ability to understand instructions as well as the amount of strength required to move the patient.

 To lose 1 lb (0.5 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly intake by 3,500 calories (approximately 500 calories daily). To lose 2 lb (1 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly caloric intake by 7,000 calories (approximately 1,000 calories daily).

 To avoid shearing force injury, a patient who is completely immobile is lifted on a sheet.

 To insert a catheter from the nose through the trachea for suction, the nurse should ask the patient to swallow.

 Vitamin C is needed for collagen production.

 Only the patient can describe his pain accurately.

 Cutaneous stimulation creates the release of endorphins that block the transmission of pain stimuli.

 Patient-controlled analgesia is a safe method to relieve acute pain caused by surgical incision, traumatic injury, labor and delivery, or cancer.

 An Asian American or European American typically places distance between himself and others when communicating.

 The patient who believes in a scientific, or biomedical, approach to health is likely to expect a drug, treatment, or surgery to cure illness.

 Chronic illnesses occur in very young as well as middle-aged and very old people.

 The trajectory framework for chronic illness states that preferences about daily life activities affect treatment decisions.

 Exacerbations of chronic disease usually cause the patient to seek treatment and may lead to hospitalization.

 School health programs provide cost-effective health care for low-income families and those who have no health insurance.

 Collegiality is the promotion of collaboration, development, and interdependence among members of a profession.

 A change agent is an individual who recognizes a need for change or is selected to make a change within an established entity, such as a hospital.

 The patients’ bill of rights was introduced by the American Hospital Association.

 Abandonment is premature termination of treatment without the patient’s permission and without appropriate relief of symptoms.

 Values clarification is a process that individuals use to prioritize their personal values.

 Distributive justice is a principle that promotes equal treatment for all.

 Milk and milk products, poultry, grains, and fish are good sources of phosphate.

 The best way to prevent falls at night in an oriented, but restless, elderly patient is to raise the side rails.

 By the end of the orientation phase, the patient should begin to trust the nurse.

 Falls in the elderly are likely to be caused by poor vision.

 Barriers to communication include language deficits, sensory deficits, cognitive impairments, structural deficits, and paralysis.

 The three elements that are necessary for a fire are heat, oxygen, and combustible material.

 Sebaceous glands lubricate the skin.

 To check for petechiae in a dark-skinned patient, the nurse should assess the oral mucosa.

 To put on a sterile glove, the nurse should pick up the first glove at the folded border and adjust the fingers when both gloves are on.

 To increase patient comfort, the nurse should let the alcohol dry before giving an intramuscular injection.

 Treatment for a stage 1 ulcer on the heels includes heel protectors.

 Seventh-Day Adventists are usually vegetarians.

 Endorphins are morphinelike substances that produce a feeling of well-being.

Pain tolerance is the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure.


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